Mccormick Mogensen posted an update 8 months ago
Neonatal care continues in the first four weeks after birth. Nursing visits to the mother’s home can assess breastfeeding, Neonate jaundice, and the healing process. A nurse or medical assistant will weigh and measure the newborn infant. This will help in determining the infant’s length and weight. A neonate’s skin integrity is also monitored. These are only a few of the signs and symptoms that need to be assessed. Depending on the severity of the neonatal conditions, neonatal care can be continued for up to five weeks.
Defining perinatal asphyxia
Perinatal asphyxia (PNA) is defined as the failure of a newborn to establish respiratory function at birth. It is a leading cause of early neonatal death, accounting for about 900,000 deaths annually. It is largely caused by complications in childbirth. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines focus on stimulating and drying the affected infant, and providing bag-and-mask assistance. Some believe this step is the most important for asphyxiate babies.
The high variation in the study may be due to the different definitions of birth asphyxia used in different settings. It could also be related to resource disparities, lack of trained health workers, and hospital setup. In addition, the study did not identify a cause-and-effect relationship among the different factors. In conclusion, the findings are encouraging, but the study must be further evaluated. However, the study is still limited by several limitations.
Assessing skin integrity
The NIPIRA study evaluated the use of a WOUNDMAP to assess the extent of mechanical force skin injuries in neonates. Neonatal patients were admitted to one of three neonatal facilities over a nine-month period. The neonates’ skin injuries were captured as digital images and recorded into the WOUNDMAP. Ethical approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committees of the three neonatal institutions. The 60 images were reviewed by specialist assessors, who completed the assessments within two months.
The study was conducted at a tertiary NICU in Australia, where about 700 neonates per year receive intensive and special care. A total of 100 part-time and full-time nurses staffed the unit. Ethics approval was obtained, and daily skin assessment was routine. There were posters and information sheets for parents of the neonates, and daily skin assessment was considered routine. In the future, the SRAMT may be used to identify neonates at high risk for injury.
There are various methods of assessing hearing in neonates. One such method is the cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEP), which allows determining the level of sound stimulus at which it reaches the auditory cortex. This technique is particularly useful for individuals who are unable to be assessed behaviorally. In a recent study, reliable responses were recorded using an automated response detection method to assess auditory thresholds in neonates with normal hearing. Mean values were found for 500, 1000, and 4000 Hz.
The process for newborn hearing screening involves gathering informed consent from parents and PCP, and then obtaining results from the state EHDI database. The screening benchmark is 95% or better; for infants who do not pass the screening, they should undergo comprehensive audiologic evaluations at least three months after birth. If they fail the screening, the parents should be counseled on how to proceed and what to expect from follow-up visits.
There are several reasons for assessing vision in neonates. These include eye infections, cataracts, and corneal opacities, as well as diseases of the retina. Because of the rapid development of the ocular and neural structures, newborn vision screening is essential to detect ocular pathology, which can lead to severe vision loss. Other reasons for newborn vision screening include a child’s low birth weight, which can lead to ocular growth defects.
In addition to testing visual acuity, vision assessments can help determine eye movement. These tests assess a child’s ocular muscle tone, peripheral eye movement, and sensitivity to light. These tests can be performed by a trained itinerant teacher. Nonetheless, they can be difficult to interpret. A video recording of the assessment must be reviewed by the diagnostic team. In many cases, a blind child may not even be able to see a moving object.
Defining cerebral spinal fluid
Determining CSF volume in neonates has remained an area of debate and research for over two decades. Although the exact volume of CSF is unknown, there are several markers of its presence that have been associated with developmental disorders in neonates. For example, CSF volume is elevated in neonates with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in normal infants. In addition, CSF is increased throughout the brain, including in the cisterns.
CSF is produced by the tissues of the brain and flows through interconnecting channels into spaces around the spinal column and brain. Ventricles in the brain absorb CSF, circulating through the blood vessels. Obstructed pathways can cause hydrocephalus, a brain disorder in which cerebrospinal fluid accumulates and becomes diluted and ineffectively reabsorbed by the body. The fluid also contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
Defining persistent pulmonary hypertension
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a life-threatening medical emergency in the newborn period. It results from failure of the postnatal transition of the fetal circulation, and its presence is associated with a high mortality. Prompt diagnosis and management may improve the outcomes of the newborn. Approximately 10% of term infants develop this condition. While early diagnosis and management are critical for a better outcome, this disorder continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates.
Molecular biomarkers for PH include the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelin-1, and prostacyclin. These markers are important diagnostic and therapeutic markers of heart failure. Moreover, they reflect the level of heart failure in neonates. The BNP levels in these neonates may rebound during treatment. The authors suggest that these peptides may be a marker of persistent pulmonary hypertension in neonates.